From the Middle Ages to the present day, these ideas have fueled charitable giving, built communities and saved lives - enabling people to help people. From education to healthcare, from political protest to economics, our culture and lifestyles are shaped, even defined, by the impact of these social innovations on a daily basis.

This is our guide to some of the most influential and enduring ideas, many of which started in the UK, and then spread across the country, or around the world. Some have been growing for nearly two centuries, others have only just begun their scaling stories - but all have the capacity to change people's lives for the better.